The state of Jammu and Kashmir comprised three regions called Kashmir province, Jammu province and Frontier districts. The Frontier districts included Gilgit and Ladakh and other areas falling therein. Jammu and Kashmir was a predominantly Muslim majority State ruled by a Hindu ruler and should have formed part of Pakistan in the spirit underlying the Indian Independence Act, 1947. The sole representative party of the State Muslims, i.e. the All Jammu and Kashmir Conference passed a resolution on 19 July 1947, supporting the accession of the State to Pakistan.

The people of the State of Jammu and Kashmir took effective control of the area of  the State now forming Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan and announced the formation of their government on 24 October 1947. The authority and sovereignty of the ruler over Jammu and Kashmir came to an end when the Dogra ruler fled from Srinagar, the capital of the State, thus effectively abdicating. However, the deposed ruler of the State allegedly executed an Instrument of Accession on  26 oct 1947. The alleged instrument of accession was accepted by the then Governor-General of India, Lord Mountbatten, on 27 October 1947, subject to its ratification by the people of the State of Jammu and Kashmir through a free and fair plebiscite.